Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

Nursing Best Practice Guidelines

Medications that impact oral health and oral hygiene

Examples of Medications Causing Dry Mouth

The following list consists of generic (and brand names) of various medications that may cause dry mouth (xerostomia) as a side effect. Adapted from: www.laclede.com

Anorexiant

  • Phentermine (Adipex-P, Fastin, Ionamin, Zantryl)
  • Phendimetrazine (Anorex SR, Adipost, Bontril PDM)
  • Mazindol (Mazanor, Sanorex)

Antianxiety

  • Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril)
  • Lorazepam (Ativan)
  • Prazepam (Centrax)
  • Halazepam (Paxipam)
  • Oxazepam (Serax)
  • Diazepam (Valium)

Anticholinerigic/Antispasmodic

  • Atropine (Atropisol, Sal-Tropine)
  • Hyoscyamine (Anaspaz)
  • Oxybutynin (Diropan)

Anticonvulsant

  • Felbamate (Felbatol)
  • Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

Antidepressant

  • Clomipramine (Anafranil)
  • Amitriptyline (Elavil)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • Doxepin (Sinequan)

Antidiarrheal

  • Loperamide (Imoddium AD)
  • Diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil)

Antihistamine

  • Diphenhydramine (Benedryl)
  • Loratadine (Claritin)
  • Terfenadine (Seldane)

Antihypertensive

  • Aptopril (Capoten)
  • Prazosin (Minipress)
  • Reserpine (Serpasil)

Antiinflammatory Analgesic

  • Ibuprofen (Motrin)
  • Naproxen (Naprosyn)
  • Piroxicam (Feldene)

Antinauseant

  • Dyphenhydramine (Dramamine)
  • Meclizine (Antivert)

Antiparkinsonian

  • Biperiden (Akineton)
  • Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)
  • Benztropine mesylate (Cogentin)

Anti-Psychotic

  • Clozapine (Clozaril)
  • Lithium (Eskalith)
  • Haloperidol (Haldol)
  • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)

Bronchodilator

  • Ipratropium (Atrovent)
  • Albuterol (Ventolin)

Decongestant

  • Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)

Diuretic

  • Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
  • Furosemide (Lasix)

Muscle Relaxant

  • Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)
  • Orphenadrine (Norflex, Disipal)

Narcotic Analgesic

  • Merperidine (Demerol)
  • Morphine (MS Contin)

Sedative

  • Flurazepam (Dalmane)
  • Triazolam (Halcion)
  • Temazepam (Restoril)

 

In addition to xerostomia, the following is a list of common oral adverse effects of medications:

  • Alterations in taste
  • Atrophic mucosa
  • Bleeding
  • Burning mouth/tongue
  • Dental caries
  • Difficulty wearing appliances
  • Difficulty with chewing
  • Difficulty with speech
  • Difficulty with swallowing
  • Gingival enlargement
  • Hairy tongue
  • Increased periodontal disease progression
  • Infection
  • Mucositis/stomatitis
  • Opportunistic infections (candidiasis)
  • Oral ulcerations

Adapted from: Darby & Walsh, 2003