Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

Nursing Best Practice Guidelines


Active Management Styles: Extent to which there is discussion or confrontation resulting in a responsive and direct form of conflict management. Individuals who use an active style openly discuss differences of opinion, voice their concerns, exchange information to solve problems together; however they may also dominate the conflict episode by firmly pursuing their own sides of disagreements (Van de Vliert& Euwema, 1994).

Antecedents: Events or situations that are generally found to precede an instance of conflict (Rodgers, 1989).

Conflict: A phenomenon occurring between interdependent parties as they experience negative emotional reactions to perceived disagreements and interference with the attainment of their goals (Barki & Hartwick, 2001)

Consensus: A collective arrived at by a group of individuals working together under conditions that permit open and supportive communication, such that everyone in the group believes he or she had a fair chance to influence the decision and can support it to others.

Critical Review: A scholarly article based on a review of the literature on a particular issue or topic, which also includes the author’s considered arguments and judgments about it.

Emotional Intelligence: The ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional growth (Mayer& Salovey, 1997) and is thought to contribute to workplace success (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003).

Expert opinion: The opinion of a group of experts based on knowledge and experience, and arrived at through consensus.

Health-care Team: In healthcare, the most common types of teams are care delivery teams and management teams, which are the focus of this BPG. These teams can be subdivided according to:
• patient population (such as geriatric teams);
• disease type (such as stroke teams); or
• care delivery settings (such as primary care, hospital and long-term care).
(CHSRF, 2006)

Healthy Work Environments: A healthy work environment for nurses is a practice setting that maximizes the health and well-being of nurses, quality patient/client outcomes and organizational performance.

Healthy Work Environment Best Practice Guidelines: Systematically developed statements based on best available evidence to assist in making decisions about appropriate structures and processes to achieve a healthy work environment (Field& Lohr,1990).

Integrative Reviews: The integrative process includes the following components: (1) problem formulation; (2) data collection or literature search; (3) evaluation of data; (4) data analysis; and (5) interpretation and presentation of results. Retrieved August 2, 2006, from

Interactional Justice: Interactional justice means that people who are affected by decisions are treated with respect and dignity which should work to prevent resentment and conflict (Schermerhorn, 2010).

Meta-analyses: The use of statistical methods to summarize the results of several independent studies, thereby providing more precise estimates of the effects of an intervention or phenomena of health care than those derived from individual studies(Clarke& Oxen, 1999).

Nurses: Refers to Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses (referred to as Registered Practical Nurses, in Ontario), Registered Psychiatric Nurses, and Nurses in advanced practice roles such as Nurse Practitioners and Clinical Nurse Specialists.

Organizational Recommendations: Statements regarding the conditions required for a practice setting that enables the successful implementation of a best practice guideline. The conditions for success are largely the responsibility of the organization.

Patient/Client: Recipient(s) of nursing services. This includes individuals, (family member, guardian, substitute caregiver) families, groups, populations or entire communities. In education, the client may be a student; in administration, the client may be staff; and in research, the client is a study participant (CNO, 2002; Registered Nurses Association of Nova Scotia, 2003).

Practice Recommendations: Statements of best practice directed toward the practice of Health-care professionals that are ideally evidence-based.

Qualitative Research: A method of data collection and analysis that is non-quantitative. Qualitative research uses a number of methodologies to obtain observational data, including interviewing participants in order to understand their perspectives, world view or experiences.

Span of Control: Number of a person who report directly to a single manager, supervisor, or leader and relates to the number of people not the number of full-time equivalent positions (Tourangeau et al., 2003)

System Recommendations: Statements of conditions required to enable the successful implementation of a best practice guideline throughout the Health-care system. The conditions for success are associated with policy development at a broader research, government and system level.

Systematic Review: Application of a rigorous scientific approach to the preparation of a review article (National Health and Medical Research Council, 1998), systematic reviews establish where the effects of healthcare are consistent, where research results may be applied across various populations and Health-care settings, and where differences in treatment and effects may vary significantly. The use of explicit, systematic methods in reviews limits bias (systematic errors) and reduces chance effects, thus providing more reliable results upon which to draw conclusion and make decisions (Clarke& Oxen, 1999).

Transformational Leadership: A leadership approach in which individuals and their leaders engage in an exchange process that broadens and motivates both parties to achieve greater levels of where the leader takes a visionary position and inspires people to follow. Retrieved from October 6, 2005 from: